2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

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2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案山东省2020年普通高中学业水平等级考试

化  学

注意事项:

1.答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、考生号等填写在答题卡和试卷指定位置。

2.回答选择题时,选出每小题答案后,用铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。回答非选择题时,将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。

3.考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。

可能用到的相对原子质量:H 1  C 12  O 16  Na 23  Cl 35.5  Fe 56

一、选择题:本题共10小题,每小题2分,共20分。每小题只有一个选项符合题目要求。

1.实验室中下列做法错误的是

A.用冷水贮存白磷                                                                   B.用浓硫酸干燥二氧化硫

C.用酒精灯直接加热蒸发皿                                     D.用二氧化碳灭火器扑灭金属钾的燃烧

2.下列叙述不涉及氧化还原反应的是

A.谷物发酵酿造食醋                                                       B.小苏打用作食品膨松剂

C.含氯消毒剂用于环境消毒                                    D.大气中NO2参与酸雨形成

3.短周期主族元素X、Y、Z、W的原子序数依次增大,基态X原子的电子总数是其最高能级电子数的2倍,Z可与X形成淡黄色化合物Z2X2,Y、W最外层电子数相同。下列说法正确的是

A.第一电离能:W>X>Y>Z                                                  B.简单离子的还原性:Y>X>W

C.简单离子的半径:W>X>Y>Z                                 D.氢化物水溶液的酸性:Y>W

4.下列关于C、Si及其化合物结构与性质的论述错误的是

A.键能eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAOAIwAEBCQAAAAAwVwEACQAAA6gBAAACAKMAAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/
//8ABQAAAC4BGQAAAAUAAAALAgAAAAAFAAAADALAAeAICwAAACYGDwAMAE1hdGhUeXBlAAAwABIA
AAAmBg8AGgD/////AAAQAAAAwP///8b///+gCAAAhgEAAAUAAAAJAgAAAAIFAAAAFAJgATQAHAAA
APsCgP4AAAAAAACQAQAAAAAAAgAQVGltZXMgTmV3IFJvbWFuAKTdGADYlFt1gAFfdQcaZngEAAAA
LQEAAAoAAAAyCgAAAAACAAAAQ5cCAYABHAAAAPsCgP4AAAAAAACQAQAAAAAAAgAQVGltZXMgTmV3
IFJvbWFuAKTdGADYlFt1gAFfdQcaZngEAAAALQEBAAQAAADwAQAADwAAADIKAAAAAAUAAABDPlNp
lwACAdgA2ABsAIABHAAAAPsCgP4AAAAAAACQAQAAAAAAAgAQVGltZXMgTmV3IFJvbWFuAKTdGADY
lFt1gAFfdQcaZngEAAAALQEAAAQAAADwAQEACgAAADIKAAAAAAIAAABTadgAAAOjAAAAJgYPADsB
QXBwc01GQ0MBABQBAAAUAQAARGVzaWduIFNjaWVuY2UsIEluYy4ABQEABglEU01UNgAAE1dpbkFs
bEJhc2ljQ29kZVBhZ2VzABEFVGltZXMgTmV3IFJvbWFuABEDU3ltYm9sABEFQ291cmllciBOZXcA
EQRNVCBFeHRyYQATV2luQWxsQ29kZVBhZ2VzABEGy87M5QASAAghL0WPRC9BUPQQD0dfQVDyHx5B
UPQVD0EA9EX0JfSPQl9BAPQQD0NfQQD0j0X0Kl9I9I9BAPQQD0D0j0F/SPQQD0EqX0RfRfRfRfRf
QQ8MAQABAAECAgICAAIAAQEBAAMAAQAEAAUACgEAEAAAAAAAAAAPAQIAgUMAAgCBFCACAIFDAAIA
gT4AAgCBUwACAIFpAAIAgRQgAgCBUwACAIFpAAAAAAoAAAAmBg8ACgD/////AQAAAAAAHAAAAPsC
EAAHAAAAAAC8AgAAAIYBAgIiU3lzdGVtAHgHGmZ4AAAKADgAigEAAAAAAQAAANjnGAAEAAAALQEB
AAQAAADwAQAAAwAAAAAAeqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAMAIwAEBCQAAAAAQVwEACQAAA6QBAAACAKAAAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/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,因此C2H6稳定性大于Si2H6

B.立方型SiC是与金刚石成键、结构均相似的共价晶体,因此具有很高的硬度

C.SiH4中Si的化合价为+4,CH4中C的化合价为-4,因此SiH4还原性小于CH4

D.Si原子间难形成双键而C原子间可以,是因为Si的原子半径大于C,难形成eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAIAEoAEBCQAAAAAwWwEACQAAA58BAAACAJcAAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/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5.利用下列装置(夹持装置略)进行实验,能达到实验目的的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.用甲装置制备并收集CO2

B.用乙装置制备溴苯并验证有HBr产生

C.用丙装置制备无水MgCl2

D.用丁装置在铁上镀铜

6.从中草药中提取的 calebin A(结构简式如下)可用于治疗阿尔茨海默症。下列关于 calebin A的说法错误的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.可与FeCl3溶液发生显色反应

B.其酸性水解的产物均可与Na2CO3溶液反应

C.苯环上氢原子发生氯代时,一氯代物有6种

D.1mol该分子最多与8molH2发生加成反应

7.B3N3H6(无机苯)的结构与苯类似,也有大π键。下列关于B3N3H6的说法错误的是

A.其熔点主要取决于所含化学键的键能

B.形成大π键的电子全部由N提供

C.分子中B和N的杂化方式相同

D.分子中所有原子共平面

8.实验室分离Fe3+和Al3+的流程如下:

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

已知Fe3+在浓盐酸中生成黄色配离子[FeCl4]-,该配离子在乙醚(Et2O,沸点34.6℃)中生成缔合物eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAIANYAIACQAAAADxUQEACQAAA1QCAAACANoAAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/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+wIQAAcAAAAAALwCAAAAhgECAiJTeXN0ZW0APoYaZj4AAAoAOACKAQAAAAABAAAA2OcYAAQAAAAt
AQEABAAAAPABAAADAAAAAAA= 。下列说法错误的是

A.萃取振荡时,分液漏斗下口应倾斜向下

B.分液时,应先将下层液体由分液漏斗下口放出

C.分液后水相为无色,说明已达到分离目的

D.蒸馏时选用直形冷凝管

9.以菱镁矿(主要成分为MgCO3,含少量SiO2/Fe2O3和Al2O3)为原料制备高纯镁砂的工艺流程如下:

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

已知浸出时产生的废渣中有SO2、Fe(OH)3和Al(OH)3。下列说法错误的是

A.浸出镁的反应为2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

B.浸出和沉镁的操作均应在较高温度下进行

C.流程中可循环使用的物质有NH3、NH4Cl

D.分离Mg2+与Al3+、Fe3+是利用了它们氢氧化物Ksp的不同

10.微生物脱盐电池是一种高效、经济的能源装置,利用微生物处理有机废水获得电能,同时可实现海水淡化。现以NaCl溶液模拟海水,采用惰性电极,用下图装置处理有机废水(以含 CH3COO-的溶液为例)。下列说法错误的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.负极反应为 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

B.隔膜1为阳离子交换膜,隔膜2为阴离子交换膜

C.当电路中转移1mol电子时,模拟海水理论上除盐58.5g

D.电池工作一段时间后,正、负极产生气体的物质的量之比为2:1

二、选择题:本题共5小题,每小题4分,共20分。每小题有一个或两个选项符合题目要求,全部选对得4分,选对但不全的得2分,有选错的得0分。

11.下列操作不能达到实验目的的是

 

目的

操作

A

除去苯中少量的苯酚

加入适量NaOH溶液,振荡、静置、分液

B

证明酸性:碳酸>苯酚

将盐酸与NaHCO3混合产生的气体直接通入苯酚钠溶液

C

除去碱式滴定管胶管内的气泡

将尖嘴垂直向下,挤压胶管内玻璃球将气泡排出

D

配制用于检验醛基的氢氧化铜悬浊液

向试管中加入2mL10%NaOH溶液,再滴加数滴2%CuSO4溶液,振荡

12.α-氰基丙烯酸异丁酯可用作医用胶,其结构简式如下。下列关于α-氰基丙烯酸异丁酯的说法错误的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.其分子式为 C8H11NO2

B.分子中的碳原子有3种杂化方式

C.分子中可能共平面的碳原子最多为6个

D.其任一含苯环的同分异构体中至少有4种不同化学环境的氢原子

13.采用惰性电极,以去离子水和氧气为原料通过电解法制备双氧水的装置如下图所示。忽略温度变化的影响,下列说法错误的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.阳极反应为2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

B.电解一段时间后,阳极室的pH未变

C.电解过程中,H+由a极区向b极区迁移

D.电解一段时间后,a极生成的O2与b极反应的O2等量

14.1,3-丁二烯与HBr发生加成反应分两步:第一步H+进攻1,3-丁二烯生成碳正离子(2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案);第二步Br -进攻碳正离子完成1,2-加成或1,4-加成。反应进程中的能量变化如下图所示。已知在0℃和40℃时,1,2-加成产物与1,4-加成产物的比例分别为70:30和15:85。下列说法正确的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.1,4-加成产物比1,2-加成产物稳定

B.与0℃相比,40℃时1,3-丁二烯的转化率增大

C.从0℃升至40℃,1,2-加成正反应速率增大,1,4-加成正反应速率减小

D.从0℃升至40℃,1,2-加成正反应速率的增大程度小于其逆反应速率的增大程度

15.25℃时,某混合溶液中eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAGAagAIACQAAAADxRgEACQAAA9IDAAACAE8BAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/
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AAAAJgYPAAoA/////wEAAAAAABwAAAD7AhAABwAAAAAAvAIAAACGAQICIlN5c3RlbQBb3hdmWwAA
CgA4AIoBAAAAAAAAAAAU4hgABAAAAC0BAAAEAAAA8AEBAAMAAAAAAA==,1gc( CH3COOH)、1gc(CH3COO-)、lgc(H+)和lgc(OH-)随pH变化的关系如下图所示。Ka为CH3COOH的电离常数,下列说法正确的是

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

A.O点时,2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

B.N点时,2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

C.该体系中,2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

D.pH由7到14的变化过程中, CH3COO-的水解程度始终增大

三、非选择题:本题共5小题,共60分

16.(12分)用软锰矿(主要成分为MnO2,含少量Fe3O4、Al2O3)和BaS制备高纯MnCO3的工艺流程如下:

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

已知:MnO2是一种两性氧化物;25℃时相关物质的Ksp见下表。

物质

Fe(OH)2

Fe(OH)3

Al(OH)3

Mn(OH)2

Ksp

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

回答下列问题:

(1)软锰矿预先粉碎的目的是            ,MnO2与BaS溶液反应转化为MnO的化学方程式为        。

(2)保持BaS投料量不变,随MnO2与BaS投料比增大,S的量达到最大值后无明显变化,而Ba(OH)2的量达到最大值后会减小,减小的原因是        。

(3)滤液I可循环使用,应当将其导入到        操作中(填操作单元的名称)。

(4)净化时需先加入的试剂X为        (填化学式)。再使用氨水调溶液的pH,则pH的理论最小值为_______(当溶液中某离子浓度2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案时,可认为该离子沉淀完全)。

(5)碳化过程中发生反应的离子方程式为                      。

17.(12分)CdSnAs2是一种高迁移率的新型热电材料,回答下列问题:

(1)Sn为ⅣA族元素,单质Sn与干燥Cl2反应生成SnCl4。常温常压下SnCl4为无色液体,SnCl4空间构型为             ,其固体的晶体类型为             。

(2)NH3、PH3、AsH3的沸点由高到低的顺序为             (填化学式,下同),还原性由强到弱的顺序为            ,键角由大到小的顺序为             。

(3)含有多个配位原子的配体与同一中心离子(或原子)通过螯合配位成环而形成的配合物为螯合物。一种Cd2+配合物的结构如图所示, 1mol该配合物中通过螯合作用形成的配位键有         mol,该螯合物中N的杂化方式有          种。

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(4)以晶胞参数为单位长度建立的坐标系可以表示晶胞中各原子的位置,称作原子的分数坐标。四方晶系CdSnAs2的晶胞结构如下图所示,晶胞棱边夹角均为90°,晶胞中部分原子的分数坐标如下表所示。

坐标

原子

x

y

z

Cd

0

0

0

Sn

0

0

0.5

As

0.25

0.25

0.125

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

一个晶胞中有         个Sn,找出距离Cd(0,0,0)最近的Sn         (用分数坐标表示)。CdSnAs2晶体中与单个Sn键合的As有           个。

18.(12分)探究CH3OH合成反应化学平衡的影响因素,有利于提高CH3OH的产率。以CO2、H2为原料合成CH3OH涉及的主要反应如下:

Ⅰ. 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案                                          2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

Ⅱ. 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案                                                                      2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

Ⅲ. eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAEAVQAIACQAAAAARSQEACQAAA1gCAAACADABAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/
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4hgABAAAAC0BAQAEAAAA8AEAAAMAAAAAAA==                                                        2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

回答下列问题:

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(2)一定条件下,向体积为VL的恒容密闭容器中通入1 mol CO2和3 mol H2发生上述反应,达到平衡时,容器中CH3OH(g)为ɑ mol,CO为b mol,此时H2O(g)的浓度为          mol﹒L-1(用含a、b、V的代数式表示,下同),反应Ⅲ的平衡常数为           。

(3)不同压强下,按照n(CO2):n(H2)=1:3投料,实验测定CO2的平衡转化率和CH3OH的平衡产率随温度的变化关系如下图所示。

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

已知:CO2的平衡转化率=2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

CH3OH的平衡产率=eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAAOARoAQACQAAAABRSwEACQAAA7YFAAAEAE8BAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/
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其中纵坐标表示CO2平衡转化率的是图           (填“甲”或“乙”);压强p1、p2、p3由大到小的顺序为           ;图乙中T1温度时,三条曲线几乎交于一点的原因是           。

(4)为同时提高CO2的平衡转化率和CH3OH的平衡产率,应选择的反应条件为         (填标号)。

A.低温、高压    B.高温、低压   C.低温、低压  D.高温、高压

19.(12分)化合物F是合成吲哚-2-酮类药物的一种中间体,其合成路线如下:

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

知:Ⅰ. 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

Ⅱ. 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

Ⅲ. 2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

Ar为芳基;X=Cl,Br;Z或Z′=COR, CONHR,COOR等。

回答下列问题:

(1)实验室制备A的化学方程式为           ,提高A产率的方法是              ;A的某同分异构体只有一种化学环境的碳原子,其结构简式为               。

(2)C→D的反应类型为            ;E中含氧官能团的名称为            。

(3)C的结构简式为            ,F的结构简式为            。

(4)Br2和2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案的反应与Br2和苯酚的反应类似,以2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案为原料合成2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案,写出能获得更多目标产物的较优合成路线(其它试剂任选)。

20.(12分)某同学利用Cl2氧化K2MnO4制备KMnO4的装置如下图所示(夹持装置略):

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

已知:锰酸钾(K2MnO4)在浓强碱溶液中可稳定存在,碱性减弱时易发生反应:

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

回答下列问题:

(1)装置A中a的作用是              ;装置C中的试剂为                ;装置A中制备Cl2的化学方程式为              。

(2)上述装置存在一处缺陷,会导致KMnO4产率降低,改进的方法是                。

(3)KMnO4常作氧化还原滴定的氧化剂,滴定时应将KMnO4溶液加入           (填“酸式”或“碱式”)滴定管中;在规格为50.00mL的滴定管中,若KMnO4溶液起始读数为15.00mL,此时滴定管中KMnO4溶液的实际体积为              (填标号)。

A.15.00 mL     B.35.00mL     C.大于35.00mL    D.小于15.00mL

(4)某FeC2O4·2H2O样品中可能含有的杂质为Fe2(C2O4)3、H2C2O4·2H2O,采用KMnO4滴定法测定该样品的组成,实验步骤如下:

Ⅰ.取m g样品于锥形瓶中,加入稀H2SO4溶解,水浴加热至75℃。用 c mol﹒L-1的KMnO4溶液趁热滴定至溶液出现粉红色且30s内不褪色,消耗KMnO4溶液V1mL。

Ⅱ.向上述溶液中加入适量还原剂将Fe3+完全还原为Fe2+,加入稀H2SO4酸化后,在75℃继续用KMnO4溶液滴定至溶液出现粉红色且30s内不褪色,又消耗KMnO4溶液V2mL。

样品中所含2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案的质量分数表达式为                 。

下列关于样品组成分析的说法,正确的是          (填标号)。

A.2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案时,样品中一定不含杂质

B.2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案越大,样品中2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案含量一定越高

C.若步骤I中滴入KMnO4溶液不足,则测得样品中Fe元素含量偏低

D.若所用KMnO4溶液实际浓度偏低,则测得样品中Fe元素含量偏高


山东省2020年普通高中学业水平等级考试

化学试题参考答案

一、选择题

1.D                            2.B                            3.C                            4.C                            5.C                            6.D                            7.A                            8.A                            9.B                            10.B

二、选择題

11.BC              12.C                            13.D                            14.AD                            15.BC

三、非选择题

16.(1)增大接触面积,充分反应,提高反应速率;

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(2)过量的MnO2消耗了产生的Ba(OH)2

(3)蒸发

(4)H2O2;4.9

(5)2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

17.(1)正四面体形;分子晶体

(2)NH3、AsH3、PH3;AsH3、PH3、NH3;NH3、PH3、AsH3

(3)6;1

(4)4;(0.5,0,0.25)、(0.5,0.5,0);4

18.(1)+40.9

(2)2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(3)乙;p1、p2、p3;T1时以反应Ⅲ为主,反应Ⅲ前后气体分子数相等,压强改变对平衡没有影响

(4)A

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SAAPAAMAGwAACwEADwECAIgzAAAPAAEBAAoPAQIAgUMAAgCBTwACAIFPAAIAgUgAAgSGKwArAgCB
QwACAIFIAA8AAwAbAAALAQAPAQIAiDMAAA8AAQEACg8BAgCBQwACAIFIAA8AAwAbAAALAQAPAQIA
iDIAAA8AAQEACg8BAgCBTwACAIFIAA8AAwAXIAABAA8BAgCBQwACAIFIAAALDwABAQEADwECAIEg
AAIEi/3/bgIAgdQAAgCB0wACBIv9/24CAIHuAAIAgb4AAgCBIAAAAAoCAIFDAAIAgUgADwADABsA
AAsBAA8BAgCIMwAADwABAQAKDwECAIFDAAIAgU8AAgCBTwACAIFDAA8AAwAbAAALAQAPAQIAiDIA
AA8AAQEACg8BAgCBSAAPAAMAGwAACwEADwECAIg1AAAPAAEBAAoPAQIEhisAKwIAgUgADwADABsA
AAsBAA8BAgCIMgAADwABAQAKDwECAIFPAAAAAAoAAAAmBg8ACgD/////AQAAAAAAHAAAAPsCEAAH
AAAAAAC8AgAAAIYBAgIiU3lzdGVtAMvUHWbLAAAKADgAigEAAAAAAQAAABTiGAAEAAAALQEBAAQA
AADwAQAAAwAAAAAA

及时蒸出产物(或增大乙酸或乙醇的用量);2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(2)取代反应;羰基、酰胺基

(3)CH3COCH2COOH;

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(4)2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

20.(1)平衡气压,使浓盐酸顺利滴下; NaOH溶液;

2020年山东新高考全国1卷化学试题及答案

(2)在装置A、B之间加装盛有饱和食盐水的洗气瓶

(3)酸式;C

(4)eqWmf183GmgAAAAAAACAPIAQACQAAAAARVQEACQAAA0wDAAAEAAwBAAAAAAUAAAACAQEAAAAFAAAAAQL/
//8ABQAAAC4BGQAAAAUAAAALAgAAAAAFAAAADAIgBCAPCwAAACYGDwAMAE1hdGhUeXBlAADAABIA
AAAmBg8AGgD/////AAAQAAAAwP///8D////gDgAA4AMAAAUAAAAJAgAAAAIFAAAAFAKkAYYEHAAA
APsCBf7jAAAAAACQAQAAAAEAAgAQU3ltYm9sAHUrHQpTEI2zChTbGADYlFt1gAFfdcAZZv4EAAAA
LQEAAAkAAAAyCgAAAAABAAAAKHkAAAUAAAAUAqQBtgkcAAAA+wIF/uMAAAAAAJABAAAAAQACABBT
eW1ib2wAdfwfCnUQjrMKFNsYANiUW3WAAV91wBlm/gQAAAAtAQEABAAAAPABAAAJAAAAMgoAAAAA
AQAAACl5AAAIAAAA+gIAABAAAAAAAAACBAAAAC0BAAAFAAAAFAJAAkAABQAAABMCQAJCCgUAAAAU
AusBxQUcAAAA+wIg/wAAAAAAAJABAAAAAAACABBUaW1lcyBOZXcgUm9tYW4A4NcYANiUW3WAAV91
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AIIuAAIAiDMAAgCIMQACAIg1AAIAg2MAAwABAwAPAAEADwECAINWAA8AAwAbAAALAQAPAQIAiDEA
AA8AAQEACg8BAgSGEiItAgCIMwACAINWAA8AAwAbAAALAQAPAQIAiDIAAA8AAQEAAAoPAQIAligA
AgCWKQAAAA8AAQAPAQIAg20AAAACBIbXALQCAIgxAAIAiDAAAgCIMAACAIIlAAAA/woAAAAmBg8A
CgD/////AQAAAAAACAAAAPoCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAQAAAAtAQIAHAAAAPsCEAAHAAAAAAC8AgAAAIYB
AgIiU3lzdGVtAADAGWb+AAAKADgAigEAAAAA/////xTiGAAEAAAALQEDAAQAAADwAQEAAwAAAAAA
;B、D

 

 

 

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